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While military operations were going on all over the world, the people of La Crosse County were doing their part for the war effort. Local industries had switched from consumer goods to war material. With so many men in the armed forces, many jobs formerly performed by them were now done by women. Everyone had to deal with rationing of gasoline, rubber, food, and other essentials. The war touched almost every facet of life in some way or another.

Previous feature articles


1945 May 7-13

V-E Day in La Crosse County

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7, page 1)

Once the December 1944 German offensive in the Ardennes had been stopped and then rolled back, it was just a matter of time, and lots of hard fighting in the air and on the ground, until Nazi Germany was crushed between the irresistible forces of the Allies closing in from both the East and the West. There was already talk, and some strategic jockeying, about what post-war Europe would look like.

This inevitability was also felt on the homefront early in 1945.

At the end of March 1945, a committee of citizens in La Crosse created a plan to celebrate V-E Day or Victory in Europe.  The igniter was to be the La Crosse Tribune transmitting official word of the German surrender to the main fire station. The main fire station would send a signal to all the sub-stations, and "aerial bombs" (presumably large fireworks) would be launched from each fire station. One hour later, there was to be a victory parade starting from Market Square and ending in Riverside Park, where there would be speeches by Mayor Verchota and clergy, along with musical numbers and singing. Stores were to close immediately if the official announcement occurred before 5:30 p.m. If the announcement came after 5:30 p.m., stores would be closed the entire next day. Taverns were to close immediately, and they were to remain closed for 24 hours. Churches, on the other hand, would open immediately for individual prayers, and special church services would be held in the morning or evening. The Army made an official request to Wisconsin Governor Walter Goodland for the following:

  • "Prohibition of blowing victory whistles."
  • Programs in schools and factories to keep students and workers off the streets.
  • Emphasis on prayer and "thanksgiving for victory and a day of solemn observance."
  • Closing of department stores and taverns, and prohibiting the sale of alcohol.
  • Reinforcing police and fire departments with auxiliaries and reserves to keep order.
  • "Enlistment of active support of radio, newspaper, industrial plants, service organizations and other media for frequent and strong appeals to the public."[1]

It appears they were afraid the celebration would get out of hand, but there was also the factor of the war against Japan that still had to be won.

Just a few days later, the planned victory parade was scrapped. The committee had second thoughts about having a victory parade when only half the victory was won. They emphasized again that V-E Day should be "a solemn occasion" with the realization that it may take many more months, or even years, to defeat Japan.[2]

The La Crosse Area Church Federation had its own strategy for V-E Day. As soon as the war in Europe was officially over, all churches would be open for "meditation and prayer." If the announcement came before 7:00 p.m., there would be "a union service of thanksgiving" beginning at 8:00 p.m. If the announcement came after 8:00 p.m., this service would be at 8:00 p.m. the following evening.[3]

On Monday, May 7, 1945, at about 8:56 a.m. local time, the announcement came that Germany was giving up. For the soldiers on the front lines, their attitude was demonstrated by Bill Mauldin's cartoon of his war-weary GIs "Willie" and "Joe" hearing the news. Nobody wanted to be the last soldier to die in Europe.

 (La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7, page 9)

The La Crosse Telephone Corporation switchboard was immediately swamped with calls.  From 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m., 28 operators, two chief operators, and all the supervisors managed a flood of 15,200 calls. Each operator handled an average of 546 calls in that first hour; a normal average was 300 calls per hour. The call volume was still high at 11:00 a.m.[4]

In La Crosse, the aerial bombs were launched and went off as planned from the city fire stations. Church bells and chimes rang, and the organ at the First Congregational Church added to the fanfare with patriotic songs. La Crosse police and the Wisconsin State Guard blocked streets leading to downtown so automobiles could not get through. There were "clusters of people on every street corner." One cocky youth boasted, "They must have heard I got my induction papers today." A man hoped that gas rationing would be eased. Another announced his intention to celebrate like he never had before, but a bystander shot down that idea by reminding him, "I don't know how you're going to do it. Everything's closed."  Many businesses, including taverns, and industrial plants closed for the day. Protestant churches opened immediately, and evening "union" services were held at the Congregational and St. John's Reformed churches on the south side and the Presbyterian church on the north side. Catholic and Lutheran churches held their services in the evening too.[5]  All churches were "packed" with people.[6]

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 8, page 5)

All offices in the federal building closed, and the post office closed at noon.[7]

Industrial plants had planned to remain operating during the day, but nobody's mind was on work. The management of Electric  Auto-Lite, Trane, and Northern Engraving decided to close before noon.[8]

Workers at Electric Auto-Lite celebrate V-E Day

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7, page 5)

City schools had all-school assemblies to announce the news and conduct a commemorative program. At Central High School, the program consisted of Richard Coldren, John Jones, Ben Overton, Ronnie Gillmeister, and the Rev. Fred Hyslop, as well as the school choir. Logan High School's program featured Principal Carl A. Halmstad, Sea Scout Jerry Neuman, and Dr. C. O. Pederson of Trinity Lutheran Church.  A special guest speaker was Logan graduate First Sergeant  Howard Blank who was on furlough after three years with the 32nd Division in the South Pacific. The board of education directed schools to dismiss students for the rest of the day. The La Crosse State Teachers College followed suit by canceling classes for the day. Students streamed out into the streets and toward downtown.[9]

Lincoln Junior High School students celebrate V-E Day

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7, page 5)

La Crosse Boy Scouts roamed the streets passing out V-E Day souvenir tags: "Don't forget America needs your energy for the big job still ahead." "Don't let celebration cause you to lose your head." "V-Day in La Crosse! Don't be destructive! There is still a war to be won."[10]

The La Crosse Tribune put out a "V-E Extra" edition (see the front page above) with just news and no advertising. The newspaper did list the advertisers that had been scheduled to appear. The newspaper staff had originally planned a larger edition to celebrate the end of the war in Europe, but directives from government agencies and newspaper associations, and restrictions on the supply of newsprint, precluded that.[11]

In fact, the War Department insisted that "V-E" was a "'newspaper' term" in a memo that made the rounds in the Pentagon. To the people who ran the war, it was known as "R" day, meaning "readjustment" of their main effort to the Pacific Theater.[12] The term "V-E Day" was coined in the fall of 1944, according to the Library of Congress.[13]

Company M of the Wisconsin State Guard was called out at 9:00 a.m., and they were at their assigned stations by 9:45 a.m. to help control the celebration. Captain Ted Garder commanded the group. They were served lunch and dinner at the local USO under the supervision of Mess Sergeant Ralph Larson. The Coast Guard Reserve relieved them at 2:00 p.m., but the State Guard was back on duty in the evening operating in pairs and carrying nightsticks.[14] Among them were R. Jaeger, Selmer Hogan, James Russell, William Eckart, and William Wolters.[15]

The extra help keeping order was appreciated, but it appears to have been unnecessary. The La Crosse Police Department reported Monday evening was the "quietest in a long time. There was not a single call involving violence." Street barricades in the downtown area were taken down at 6 p.m.[16]

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 8, page 2)

About the only businesses that remained open were movie theatres.[17] Within a few days, movie theatres in La Crosse were screening the Army film "Two Down and One to Go," (alluding to Germany, Italy, and Japan) showing how the Army was going to redeploy to the Pacific Theater.[18]

The Pacific Theater played a role in the range of emotion experienced by some individuals that day. Mrs. Archie Geiwitz of 1215 South 17th Street had a double reason to rejoice because she received the official word that her son, Sgt. Francis Sawyer, had been released from a Japanese prison camp in the China-Burma-India theater. A man was in the La Crosse Tribune office submitting an article for publication when he heard the news. His apathetic reaction was understandable; the article he brought in told of his son's death on Luzon.[19]

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7, page 1)

The celebrations in other La Crosse County communities were similar in their content and character.

In far northern La Crosse County, Mindoro schools and businesses closed on Tuesday. The Lutheran and Presbyterian churches had special V-E  Day services.[20]

The Rev. H. J. Wein of La Crosse addressed a crowded Holmen Lutheran Church on Monday evening. There were prayers, readings, hymns, and the girls' chorus of Joyce Johnson, Evelyn Skogen, Margie Stark, Dorothy Olson, Claudia Nelson, Constance Wall, Helen Larson, and Joanne and Marian Haug.[21]

The church in New Amsterdam had a service Monday evening. It was noted that there were eighteen stars on the church service flag representing men in both theatres of war.[22]

West Salem had a quiet celebration. Schools let out and most businesses closed. The high school band played downtown over the noon hour. Attendance was good at the three churches in town for their special services. The fire siren, along with the ringing of church bells and the old fire bell, marked the official V-E Day on Tuesday.[23]

It was virtually the same in Bangor. Business places closed at noon on Monday and Tuesday afternoon. Some churches had services on Monday evening or Tuesday morning. The editor of the Bangor Independent captured the mood of the day:

Throughout the United States there seemed to be little disposition toward revelry or joyful celebrating. It seems as though the impact upon the emotions of the momentous events of the past month or so have drained people's emotions dry.  . . . We are tired mentally and dulled emotionally for the time being. In years to come we shall see these world-shaking events in sharper focus than we do now and in retrospect shall realize them more vividly than now.[24]

Celebrations were subdued by the grim reality that the job was just half done. The terrible battle for Okinawa had been going on for over a month with horrendous casualties on both sides. The Japanese gave no sign of giving up even as their Pacific empire was being hacked and sliced from the outside in.

The editor of the La Crosse Tribune wrote: "Japanese defeat, utter and complete, is certain, but how or where it will come and the will of Japanese armies and people to continue the fight is beyond calculation."[25]

Even though there were no advertisements in the V-E Extra edition of the La Crosse Tribune, the advertisements soon after expressed the essence of the moment.

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7, page 10)

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 8, page 12)

Monday was for subdued celebration; Tuesday was back to war work.

In other stories this week:

  • Leonard Nichols spoke at a meeting of the First Presbyterian Women's Association about his years in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines (Nichols was one of several thousand internees freed in the Los Banos raid).
  • The Seventh War Loan Drive will start Monday.
  • Sugar rations are being reduced.
  • Civilian workers are needed for the Navy and the Veterans Administration.
  • Sewing classes at the La Crosse Vocational School made clothes for the Russian relief effort.


See more HERE


Jeff Rand
Adult Services Librarian
La Crosse Public Library


Sources & Notes:

[1] "Citizens' Committee Outlines V-Day Observance Plans Here," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 March 28, page 10.

[2] "Cancel V-Day Parade Plans," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 April 1, page 6.

[3] "Church Federation Plans V-Day Rites," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 April 10, page 10.

[4] "V-E Sidelights," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 7, page 2.

[5] "Business Places, Industries, Schools Here Close After Firing of 'V-E' Aerial Bombs," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 7, page 1.

[6] "Overflow Crowds Attend V-E Services in City's Churches," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 8, page 1.

[7] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7.

[8] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7.

[9] La Crosse Tribune,  1945 May 7.

[10] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7.

[11] "No Advertising In Publication," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 7, page 1.

[12] "It Was 'R' Day," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 13, page 12.

[13] Matt Barton, "VE-Day--Take One," Library of Congress, 2020 May 7, The author searched and found "V-E Day" referred to as early as September 1944 in multiple newspapers.

[14] "State Guard Helps Police," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 7, page 2.

[15] "Members of Co. M. Wisconsin State Guard," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 8, page 12.

[16] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 8.

[17] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7.

[18] "Official Army Film Showing At Theaters," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 10, page 2.

[19] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 7.

[20] "Mindoro," The Nonpareil Journal, West Salem, Wisconsin, 1945 May 10, page 8.

[21] "Victory Service in Holmen," The Nonpareil Journal, West Salem, Wisconsin, 1945 May 10, page 8.

[22] "New Amsterdam," La Crosse County Record, Onalaska, Wisconsin, 1945 May 10, page 5.

[23] "Town Topics," The Nonpareil Journal, West Salem, Wisconsin, 1945 May 10, page 1.

[24] "Main Street Musings," Bangor Independent, Bangor, Wisconsin, 1945 May 10, page 1.

[25] "The End--In Europe," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 7, page 6.


1945 April 30-May 6

Victory Gardens

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 20, page 10)

Every year when the weather transitions from early spring to late spring, as lawns and trees start to become green, people yearn to get outside. We watch things grow and even get the urge to grow things ourselves. In early 1945, growing things was not just a seasonal desire, it was part of the response to an international emergency.

The worldwide war created the need for food to supplement agricultural crops and food supplies that were disrupted by the conflict. There was also the fear of food shortages at home caused by the war. As with many other activities on the home front, there was the desire to do something to contribute to the war effort.

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 14, page 3)

Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard proposed "Victory gardens" not long after the United States became involved in World War II. Americans planted vegetable gardens in their backyards, vacant lots, and public places. There was even a Victory garden at the Arlington Race Track in Chicago and also one at a zoo in Portland, Oregon. A side benefit to all of this vegetable production was the introduction of previously unfamiliar vegetables to the national palate and increased canning and preservation of nutritious food. In 1943, 20.5 million Victory gardens produced one-third of all the vegetables consumed that year.[1]

The concept was not unprecedented. During World War I, the government encouraged Americans to produce their own food with "war gardening." President Woodrow Wilson appointed future president Herbert Hoover to run the U.S. Food Administration. People were encouraged to voluntarily produce more and consume less. This program was so successful that Americans never experienced food rationing during the First World War as they did during World War II.[2]

(Virginia Museum of History & Culture)

Claude R. Wickard went from running a 380-acre corn and hog farm in Indiana to working for the Department of Agriculture in 1933. He rose through that agency until he became Secretary of Agriculture in 1939 when his boss, Henry Wallace, resigned to become the nominee for Vice-President. Wickard pushed for all-out food production by American farmers, and Victory gardens extended that philosophy to the rest of the citizenry. In November 1941, even before the United States officially entered the war, Wickard had a vision of feeding Great Britain and the United States, as well as the post-war world. He was an advocate for reciprocal trade agreements between countries for agricultural commodities and products. Wickard also saw the need for higher nutrition standards to raise the international standard of living. He said, "Food will win the war and write the peace."[3]

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 4, page 9)

It did not take long for Wickard's idea of Victory gardens to become a hot topic in the United States. In January 1942, newspapers around the country were touting the program as one of the ways anybody could help the war effort. There were conferences, workshops, and helpful advice on how to create a bountiful Victory garden on almost any vacant spot of land.

A Kansas publication put it this way:

Gardens are essential for four reasons: Good nutrition, to cut food cost, to provide adequate diet if availability of familiar foods is cut off, and to release foods for other sources such as the army and navy.  . . . Will your garden be a spring fever or a summer reality?[4]

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 30, page 8)

The Office of Civilian Defense sponsored many gardens that were divided into plots for individual families. Surplus produce could be directed to school lunch programs.[5]

In La Crosse, the city government took the lead. The city engineering department plowed and staked garden plots at the old Salzer airfield at Losey Boulevard South and Green Bay Street. There were almost 150 plots, each one measuring 50 by 100 feet.[6] With the war in Europe reaching its climax, perhaps the anxiety about food rationing was starting to fade. Even as late as June 1, 1945, there were still several plots available there.[7] The city parks department also created 110 plots near the golf course next to Hixon Forest.[8]

The La Crosse Garden Club initiated a junior victory garden committee to enlist young gardeners. The chair was Mrs. C. F. Sutor; other members were Mmes. Lillian Gottschalk, J. T. Wright, H. K. Holley, B. A. Spangler, and M. Rosenstein. They visited all the public and parochial schools in early 1945 to sign up almost 100 youngsters to grow vegetables for their families. Logan Junior High School showed the most interest with 38 enrollments. The young gardeners were asked to keep a record book of their garden and exhibit at least five different vegetables at the fall harvest festival sponsored by the La Crosse Garden Club.[9]

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 May 24, page 19)

The Boy Scouts of America set out to plant 500,000 Victory gardens in 1945. Boy Scouts and Cub Scouts could earn a green thumb certificate for planting, tending, and harvesting a Victory garden. Those that met a higher set of criteria were eligible for the General McArthur Medal awarded by the National Victory Garden Institute.[10]

In rural areas, 4-H Clubs were active in the Victory garden program. Boys and girls in this organization for farm youth planted 1,000,000 Victory gardens.[11]

Americans planted more than 18,000,000 Victory gardens every year during the war.[12] Even though these gardens produced a sizeable amount of vegetables for domestic consumption, they may have had even more value as morale and community builders.[13]

(The Nonpareil Journal, West Salem, Wisconsin, 1945 May 17, page 8)

Visitors to the National Museum of American History in Washington D.C. can stroll through The Victory Garden, a re-creation of a World War II Victory Garden.[14]

Now the city of La Crosse is promoting public food gardens, harkening back to the Victory gardens of the 1940s, as a way to address food insecurity.[15] Time will tell if the modern incarnation is as productive combating an internal enemy as the original Victory gardens were with external ones.

In other stories this week:

  • Frank Tighe loans his car to a soldier who steals it and drives to Minnesota before being caught.
  • La Crosse makes plans for V-E (Victory in Europe) Day as the noose tightens around Hitler's Germany.
  • There is an urgent need for arc welders to work in La Crosse defense industries.
  • County youths are warned about putting the initials "PW" on their clothing as a prank. This is dangerous and hinders the apprehension of escaped prisoners of war.
  • The Junior Red Cross at Roosevelt School packages homemade cookies to send to the Camp McCoy hospital.
  • Outer's Laboratories in Onalaska, despite a serious fire earlier this year, wins another Army-Navy "E" Award.


See more HERE


Jeff Rand
Adult Services Librarian
La Crosse Public Library

Sources & Notes:

[1] Ronald H. Bailey, The Home Front: U.S.A. (Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1977), 108.

[2] "Victory Gardens," Virginia Museum of History & Culture, accessed 2020 May 7,

[3] Luther Huston, "On the Food Front: Secretary Wickard directs the campaign to 'win the war and write the peace' by producing more from our farms," The New York Times, 1941 November 9, page SM9.

[4] "Victory Gardens," The Lyon County Farm Bureau News, Emporia, Kansas, 1942 January 1, page 1.

[5] "U.S. May Revive 'Victory Gardens,'" Cumberland Evening Times, Cumberland, Maryland, 1942 January 12, page 2.

[6] "Lots For Gardens Available At Old Salzer Airport Site," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 April 19, page 12.

[7] "Garden Plots Available," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 June 1, page 5.

[8] "City Victory Gardens Ready For 'Farmers,'" La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 16, page 4.

[9] "Stepped-Up Interest Shown In Gardens," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 16, page 4.

[10] Scouts Seek Special Medal For Gardens, La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 May 20, page 5.

[11] "Unfortunate If True," The Logan Daily News, Logan, Ohio, 1945 December 27, page 4. The focus of the 4-H organization has since expanded beyond just farm youth.

[12] Harrisburg Telegraph, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1945 November 2, page 10.

[13] David M. Kennedy, The Library of Congress World War II Companion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), 863.

[14] "Victory Garden," Smithsonian Institution, accessed 2020 May 7,

[15] Olivia Herken, "A symbol of relief," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 2020 April 6, page A1.

1945 April 23-29

Mary Losey--Present at the Creation

Mary Losey

(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 29, page 10)

The World Health Organization (WHO), as part of the United Nations, has been in the news lately because of the COVID-19 pandemic. It might be surprising to learn that La Crosse native Mary Losey once worked for WHO, and she was also present at the 1945 San Francisco Conference that created its parent organization, the United Nations, during World War II.

Losey is a well-known name in La Crosse, and with good reason. Mary's grandfather, Joseph Walton Losey I, was a prominent lawyer for many years. He was instrumental in the establishment of Oak Grove Cemetery and the county fairgrounds in La Crosse. Losey was also responsible for  the creation of Forest Avenue and his namesake, Losey Boulevard . The senior Losey died in 1901. His wife, Florence L. (Lehman) Losey, came to the United States from Germany in 1854. She married Joseph Walton Losey in 1859 in La Crosse. She was an active member and supporter of the Baptist Church, as well as other public and private charities, and she was one of the founders of the Home for the Friendless in La Crosse. Florence Losey died in 1909.

Losey Memorial Arch at Oak Grove Cemetery, La Crosse, Wisconsin

(Jeff Rand, 2005 July 2)

Mary Losey's father, Joseph Walton Losey II, was born in 1879 in La Crosse. He was a football star at two colleges as a lineman. When his father died in 1901, Joseph Losey II quit Princeton to return to La Crosse. He started working for the Burlington railroad and eventually became a general claim agent for the railroad for 20 years. Losey was a director for the La Crosse Interstate Fair, and he also was in charge of the horse races there for many years. He married Ina Higbee, the daughter of Judge E. C. Higbee, in 1907. They had two children: Joseph Walton Losey III, and Mary Louise Losey.

Mary Louise Losey attended La Crosse Central High School in the 1920s. She was part of the "Student Teacher Council Swing Out," the first vaudeville-type production ever done at the school. Mary was also active in the Girls Athletic Association, particularly in swimming. Losey graduated from La Crosse Central in 1927.

 Joseph W. Losey II died while his daughter was still in high school. He died in February 1925 of appendicitis; he was only 46 years old.

Mary Losey's college education was of the exclusive kind. She attended what is now known as the Stoneleigh-Burnham School  for girls in Northampton, Massachusetts. Then she studied at the prestigious Wellesley College, near Boston, Massachusetts, where she graduated with a degree in history in 1932. At Wellesley, Losey was the president of the International Relations Club.

Shortly after her college graduation 1932, Mary's engagement to Frank Taylor Ostrander, Jr., of Syracuse, New York, was announced. This either ended in a broken engagement or a very short marriage, because Mary Losey married another man three years later.

In June 1935, Mary Losey married Spencer Mapes in New York City. He was from a prominent New York  City family. Mapes had attended a prep school for boys in Orange, New Jersey, called the Carteret Academy. His widowed mother had a home in New York City and one in New Jersey. Mapes was working as a publicist in New York City at the time of their marriage, and the couple made their home in New York City.

Ten years later, at the end of April 1945, Mary Losey was working for the Office of War Information for the government of Canada while her husband lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland. Losey was charged with running a small theater in San Francisco at the St. Francis hotel for delegates to the conference that was organizing what would become the United Nations. Her theater would "show the documentary and information films of the various governments, news reels and any other important events that turn up" five days a week. There were also to be receptions and speakers at the shows. Her official title was "film exhibition director, secretariat, United Nations Conference on International Security."

After nearly six years of war, the Allied nations wanted to formalize their alliance in the coming postwar world. They were also looking to create an international organization that could prevent war and be more effective in addressing world crises than the post-World War I League of Nations, which the United States had never joined.

The seed was planted at the Dumbarton Oaks conference near Washington D. C.  in the summer of 1944 with a proposal to establish a postwar international organization to prevent wars and promote world stability.

With Allied victory almost assured in early 1945, delegations from 50 countries met in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26. The main Allied powers---the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and China--were the key participants in the conference. Over 2,535 press and radio reporters covered this momentous event in world history. What became the charter for the United Nations eventually was made up of 111 articles in 19 chapters. The purpose of the new international organization was delineated in the preamble:

  • protect future generations from war
  • acknowledge fundamental human rights
  • support equal rights for men and women
  • promote treaties and international law
  • promote social progress and better standards of living
  • practice tolerance and live together in peace
  • maintain international peace and security
  • discourage armed force in international relations
  • promote economic and social advancement for all people

Since its inception, the United Nations has been more successful in its humanitarian aims than in preventing war. Later on, Mary Losey would contribute to the humanitarian work of the United Nations.


Somewhere along the way, Losey taught at Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York. Spencer Mapes worked for the New York State Employment Service.

Shortly after World War II, Mary Losey was one of the organizers and secretary-treasurer of International Film Associates (IFA), a business organization that sponsored documentary films. IFA provided research, production, and distribution of documentary films for organizations such as the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, the Intercultural Education Bureau, the Children's Bureau, and the American Library Association. It also served as a professional organization for documentary filmmakers. Mary Losey was the American Representative of International Film Associates in 1947.

It was during this time that Losey had an encounter with the racist policies of the era. One hot summer day in Washington D.C., Mary Losey took her twin boys, the daughter of a friend, and the Losey's maid to a soda fountain in a drug store. They waited a long time without being served. Mary asked  the clerk why they were being ignored, and the clerk replied that the store could not serve a "n_____r" [presumably the Losey's maid]. Mary Losey protested in person and in writing without a satisfactory response.

Mary Losey made documentary films for England, France, Canada, and other countries. She also worked in the script department for the documentary series March of Time.

By the late 1950's, Mary Losey had become the film and photo officer for the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. Her main responsibility was producing documentary films on health for WHO. The work took her to many countries. Some of the films she made were silent to there would be no language barrier for anyone. On a visit to La Crosse during 11th World Health Assembly in Minneapolis held in the summer of 1958, Losey said she loved living in Geneva because of "its international atmosphere." Her twin sons, Peter and Anthony Mapes, were mostly educated in Switzerland, but they planned to attend college in the United States.



Mary Losey Mapes in 1958

(La Crosse Tribune, 1958 June 22, page 13)

In 1963, Mary Losey Mapes was the information officer of the World Health Organization Liaison Office at the United Nations. She was a member of the Wellesley Club and the Overseas Press Club. Her marriage to Spencer Mapes had ended in a divorce sometime before.

In August 1963, she married her second husband, William Osgood Field, in New York City. Field, a 1926 graduate of Harvard University, was on the staff of the American Geographical Society.  Field had been an officer in the Army Signal Corps during World War II, and he established the Department of Exploration and Field Research in the American Geographical Society in 1946. His specialty was studying glaciers and arctic regions. His first wife had died in 1960. Field was also a descendant of Cornelius Vanderbilt. The newlyweds made their home in New York City.

Field, who had started working for the American Geographical Society in 1940, retired in 1969, but he continued to do work on glaciers for the organization. He died in 1994 of cancer at the age of 90. He and Mary Losey Field were living in Great Barrington, Massachusetts by then.  Dr. Melvin G. Marcus, a professor of geography at Arizona State University, said ". . . Bill Field is one of the few key elders who sired the field of glaciology."

Less than a year later, Mary Losey Field died on April 21, 1995, in Lenox, Massachusetts.

Both of the children of Joseph and Ina Losey chose careers in film. Although not as famous as her film-director brother, Joseph Losey (1909-1984), Mary Losey used her cinematic skills to inform and educate. During World War II, she had made her contributions on behalf of Canada and the San Francisco Conference, but her impact was even greater after the war in the work she did for the World Health Organization, birthed from the United Nations, that sought to improve the lives of millions of people around the world.

In other news this week:

  • Shimeji Ryusaki, on a business trip for the Swedish consulate in Hawaii, stops in La Crosse to visit the Berny family because they entertained her brother when he was stationed at Camp McCoy. Private Tamotsu Ono, a pre-medical student at the University of Hawaii before the war, also visits La Crosse because other Japanese-American soldiers had told him about the beauty and hospitality of La Crosse. Ryusaki and Ono met at the home of Frank Dittman at 437 23rd Street North and discovered that they lived three blocks from each other in Hawaii.
  • One of Ernie Pyle's columns this week mentions the Navajo code talkers with the Marines on Okinawa.
  • Workers at the La Crosse Rubber Mills are still on strike.
  • Three La Crosse taverns are charged with over-pricing food and drinks in violation of wartime price controls.
  • There is a tin can collection coming up this weekend.


See more HERE


Jeff Rand
Adult Services Librarian
La Crosse Public Library

[Note: Technical problems with Chrome forced me to use Firefox to upload this article. Firefox deleted all the endnote numbers in the text and in the Sources & Notes section. My apologies.]

Sources & Notes:

"Funeral Of Joseph Walton Losey Will Be Held Wednesday," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1925 February 17, page 1.

"Mrs. J. W. Losey Expires Today," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1909 February 6, page 6.

 La Crosse Tribune, 1925 February 17.

"Central High Vaudeville Is Big Success," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1926 March 20, page 6.

"Seniors Win Swimming Meet At Central, La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1927 April 10, page 5.

"High School Swimming Clubs Hold Joint Tourney Friday, La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1927 April 10, page 19. This article mentions that she is one of the top swimmers in the senior class.

La Crosse Tribune, 1925 February 17. Surgeries for inflamed appendixes have been routine for decades, but not in the 1920s.

"Mary Losey Finishing Wellesley," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1932 June 20, page 4.

"Mary Losey Engaged to New York Man," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1932 June 27, page 4.

"Mary Louise Losey Is New York Bride Of Spencer Mapes," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1935 June 9, page 4. The newspaper article spells the school as "Cartaret."

"Mary Losey," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 April 29, page 10. At this time, her mother was living at 250 West Avenue South in La Crosse.

Louis L. Snyder, Louis L. Snyder's Historical Guide to World War II (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1982), 200.

Snyder, 612.

Edward B. Marks, Still Counting: Achievements and Follies of a Nonagenarian (Lanham, Maryland: Hamilton Books, 2005), 207.

Marks, 207.

"Wellesley Club In Busy Program, Washington Evening Star, 1947 February 13, page 29.

Marks, 207-208.

"Mary Losey Mapes Here From Switzerland For 11th World Health Assembly," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1958 June 22, page 13.

  La Crosse Tribune, 1958 June 22.

"Mrs. Mary L. Mapes Is Wed Here to William Osgood Field," The New York Times, 1963 August 9, page 11.

"Mary L. Mapes Eastern Bride," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1963 August 13, page 8.

Maynard M. Miller, "William Osgood Field, 1904-1994," The American Alpine Club, 1995, Miller also recounts that Field made 25 scientific trips to Alaska during his life, with his first visit being in 1925. Field published many articles in Geographical Review, numerous glacier maps for the American Geological Society, and the three-volume Mountain Glaciers of the Northern Hemisphere (United States Army, 1975). He accumulated many honors for his work, including an honorary doctorate from the University of Alaska-Fairbanks. Miller writes that Field "had a deep respect for nature" and was "an early conservationist."

The New York Times, 1963 August 9.

  La Crosse Tribune, 1963 August 13.

"William Osgood Field, 90, Studied Glaciers," The New York Times, 1994 June 19, page 6B.

"Mary Losey Field," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1995 April 23, page B-7.

1945 April 16-22

La Crosse to Los Banos and Back




(La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22, page 12)

Even though he was not in the armed forces,  Leonard D. Nichols of La Crosse found himself in a Japanese prison camp for most of World War II. Despite his civilian status, he endured the same danger and hardships as any other military prisoner of war. Nichols and his fellow prisoners were freed in one of the most daring and successful rescue missions in military history.

Leonard D. Nichols was born August 18, 1914, at West Salem, Wisconsin,  to  David W. and Anna M. Nichols.[1]

When he registered with the Selective Service in 1940, he was 5 feet, eight inches tall, and weighed 148 pounds.[2]

Photo of Leonard Nichols, probably from a high school yearbook

(La Crosse Tribune, 1943 December 22, page 1)

The  27-year-old  Nichols arrived in the Philippines on November 29, 1941, as a civilian employee of the Army. In his job as an aviation mechanic, he helped assemble P-40 fighter planes for the Army Air Corps[3] at Nichols Field.[4] Nichols Field was near Manila on the island of Luzon.[5]

Curtiss P-40 Warhawk

(Pacific War Online Encyclopedia)

When the Japanese made their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, they were able to destroy many of the Army Air Corps P-40 fighter planes at their airbases in Hawaii. The Americans had parked them wingtip to wingtip to make them easier to guard against sabotage. Only a few were able to get airborne and oppose the Japanese air raid that brought the United States into World War II.

Southwest Pacific in 1942

(National Archives)

Nine hours after the Pearl Harbor attack, the Japanese launched a huge air raid on the Clark and Iba airbases in the Philippines. It was a replay of the Pearl Harbor attack without the ships. Most of the American airplanes, parked wingtip to wingtip here just as they were in Hawaii, were destroyed on the ground while their crews were having lunch. The Japanese followed up with an invasion force landing on Luzon, just north of Manila, on December 22, 1941.[6]

Nichols sent a cablegram to his parents in La Crosse on December 16 stating that he had not been hurt in the Japanese attack. It would be two years before his parents heard anything from him again.[7]

Nichols continued his work for the Army until December 31. The Japanese occupied his area on January 2, 1942, and Nichols became their captive on January 14 when civilians were given an ultimatum to surrender.[8] The civilians were called internees rather than prisoners of war, but they were prisoners just the same.

The Philippines

(National Archives)

Meanwhile, American and Filipino troops under General Douglas McArthur carried out a valiant but doomed defense of Luzon and the island of Corregidor for several months. President Roosevelt ordered McArthur to escape to Australia. On April 9, 1942, the 78,000 defenders of the Bataan peninsula, weakened by hunger and disease, surrendered to the Japanese. Another 13,000 Americans and Filipinos held out on Corregidor until May 6 until they too were ordered to surrender. The Japanese now controlled the Philippine Islands, as well as thousands of military and civilian prisoners taken in the campaign.[9]

Nichols and other civilians were first interned at Santo Tomas on Luzon. As the arrogant conquerors of the Far East, the Japanese troops exerted their superiority over the captives. Nichols said "the treatment was pretty bad at first. There was quite a bit of slapping around as the Japs were feeling pretty cocky about taking Manila . . . the young Japanese pushed us around...," until that behavior tapered off.  But there were exceptions. A young Filipino was beaten unconscious by rifle butts for insulting a Japanese guard. Nichols also saw five British civilians killed when they tried to escape.[10]

The Red Cross notified his parents on March 18, 1943, that Nichols was a prisoner of the Japanese.[11]

Nichols remained at Santo Tomas until early 1943. The Red Cross was able to supply some food, and some of the captives had a stash of money that could be used to buy food. Later the Japanese took over food supplies, so the captives were fed rice and vegetables. After the vegetables disappeared, their diet consisted of rice, some coconuts, and some bananas.[12]

On May 14, 1943, Nichols and 800 younger captives were sent to a former agricultural college at Los Banos. After staying in the college buildings for a while, they were moved out into barracks made of heavy native grass. In December the men were ordered to build barracks and sanitation facilities for hundreds of women and children that would be joining them from Santo Tomas.[13]

Just before Christmas in 1943, Nichols's parents finally received a letter from him. Nichols wrote that he was living in a camp about 40 miles from Manila. He had spent some time in the hospital early in his confinement, but his health was fairly good. His duties in camp involved sanitation. "Time sure goes slow here, and at times it gets pretty monotonous." He mentioned another man from La Crosse, Lonnie Hines, being in the same camp with him for a while [Santo Tomas]. In addition to some comments about the hot, rainy weather being hard to get used to, Nichols wrote, "I sure miss all of you, and hope somehow it will be possible to get home again soon."[14]

The Los Banos camp was organized with a "central committee" of prisoners who dealt with their captors, and  "monitors" who were each responsible for 100 people.[15] Each barracks held about 100 people, and each prisoner had three feet by three feet by seven feet of personal space.[16]

The majority of the more than 2,000 internees were American (1,575 at the time of liberation); other nationalities represented were British, Australian, Canadian, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, and Italian.[17] There was also one man from France and another from Nicaragua.[18] These people had been involved in business, commercial, educational, professional, and religious pursuits when the Japanese invaded. Some were American military dependents who had not made out in time.[19] Included among the captives were 500 religious people---missionaries, priests, nuns, and even two bishops.[20]  Twelve U.S. Navy nurses were the only military personnel in the camp.[21]

All generations were present in the camp. At least 18 babies were born in captivity there.[22] At the time of liberation, the youngest person was three days old and the oldest was 70 years old.[23]

Their treatment got worse when the Japanese realized they were losing the war. They tried to make the captives bow to them, but nobody would do it. This was followed by "some slapping around" until the Japanese gave up that demand.[24]

Food and tobacco were precious commodities in the camp. The prisoners ate just twice a day. The last Red Cross food package came on December 23, 1943. The bishops begged the Japanese commander for more food to stave of disease, but they were always refused. Those who had money could secretly buy things from the guards. "Two pounds of sugar cost $80 and a half pound of tobacco $60. A duck egg could be had for $9. Cocoanuts were $3.50 and bananas $3 a half dozen," said Nichols. A wristwatch could be traded for four pounds of sugar, while a fountain pen would be good for five packages of cigarettes. When their money and barter items were gone, their diet suffered. Nichols said he ate cats and dogs that the prisoners had skinned and cooked. During their last week of captivity, each prisoner was getting 2.5 ounces of unhusked rice per day. It took about six hours to husk the rice, and about five men would go to the woods under guard to get firewood for cooking. Two men who escaped into the hills looking for cocoanuts were shot and killed when they tried to return to camp.[25] Another prisoner stated that they ate weeds, flowers, vines, salamanders, slugs, grubs, and rats to survive.[26]

Mosquitoes were thick when everyone went to bed at 7:00 p.m. They slept on mats and wooden bunks.[27]

Despite the hunger and living conditions, Nichols said camp morale was high. Prisoners put up cartoons of the guards around the camp. For a short time, the prisoners put on camp shows, until these were prohibited, that subtlety poked fun at the Japanese. A few letters came into the camp, but Nichols received only two himself.[28]

Two cards from Nichols reached his parents in La Crosse on January 17 and 18, 1945. In one, he wrote that he hoped to be "getting home soon."[29] His hope was soon to be realized.

Having left the Philippines in early 1942 under a cloud of retreat and defeat, General Douglas MacArthur had made good on his vow to return by landing an American invasion force on Leyte on October 20, 1944.[30] From there it was less than 800 miles north to Luzon where most of the Allied military and civilian prisoners were being held.

When American troops landed on Luzon in early 1945, the prisoners enjoyed a week of unexpected freedom. After informing the central committee,  the Japanese guards left Los Banos early on the morning of January 6, the day that American forces landed at Lingayen Gulf. The prisoners brought an American flag out of hiding to fly over the camp. They stayed in the camp because they thought it would make it easier for the American forces to find them. Filipinos from the area brought in food, so the prisoners ate well for the first time in years. An abandoned radio provided them with news of the American invasion.[31]

This idyllic sojourn soon ended, however, when the Japanese returned on January 14. Nichols said, "They were drunk and more mean and nasty than ever." Food rations were cut. Dysentery, malaria, and beriberi afflicted many prisoners. Ten people died just a week from the final liberation of the camp. Nichols constructed coffins and crosses for them.[32] Disease and malnutrition were causing two deaths per day at the camp in January 1945.[33]

By this time in the war, Japanese atrocities against prisoners were well-known. General Douglas MacArthur also felt an obligation to the people in prison camps that were there because of his inability to prevent the Japanese conquest of the Philippines in 1942. On February 3, 1945, the same day that American forces were liberating the Santo Tomas camp, MacArthur instructed Lt. General Robert Eichelberger to rescue the 2,000 prisoners at Los Banos as soon as possible. Los Banos was 50 miles behind Japanese lines on the southern shore of Laguna de Bay, a shallow lake surrounded by swampy terrain.  Eichelberger delegated the mission to Major General Joseph Swing of the 11th Airborne Division. Swing gave the task to Colonel Robert Soule of the 188th Glider Regiment.[34]



11th Airborne Division patch

(Medals of America)

The mission required intelligence about the Los Banos camp. Filipino guerrillas scouted the area, and they also brought out Peter Miles, an American engineer, who had recently escaped. Miles drew a map of the camp that included Japanese defensive positions.[35]

Assembling the raiding force was the next step. Nine C-47 transport planes for a company of paratroopers were readied at Nichols Field, the same airfield where Leonard Nichols had worked on P-40 fighter planes. Fifty amtracs were gathered to transport the freed prisoners and raiding party away from the camp.[36]

The raiding party of 32 Americans and 80 Filipino guerrillas marched to the northern shore of Laguna de Bay on February 20. Then they paddled native canoes to the southern shore and went into hiding. During the night, they traversed rice paddies and swamps for seven hours to reach their jumping-off point near the camp. [37]

Map of the Los Banos Raid

(Bruce Henderson Books)[38]

The liberation of Los Banos finally came in the early morning hours of February 23, 1945. The raiding party set off smoke grenades to mark the camp for the amphibious force and the paratroopers before bursting into the camp to kill the guards. Paratroopers dropped from the sky to set up blocking positions to oppose any Japanese reinforcements.[39]   Leonard Nichols was standing beside a barracks when he saw the first American paratrooper land. When the firing started, all the prisoners laid flat on the ground to avoid being hit. After about a half-hour, the camp was in American hands.[40]  The amtracs waddled up to the camp to start shuttling prisoners out while fighter planes flew air cover. In an operation demonstrating masterful coordination and timing, about 250 Japanese camp personnel were killed for the loss of two American soldiers dead and one wounded.[41] All 2,122 civilian internees were safely rescued.[42]

The prisoners gathered their meager belongings (Nichols forgot to take his prison diary) and loaded on to amtracs for a trip across the Laguna de Bay lake under sporadic Japanese fire.[43]

After a week in a rest camp, they were flown from Luzon to Leyte. From there, Nichols was on a ship to the United States, arriving on  April 8. Leonard Nichols was in his parent's home at 823 6th Street South, La Crosse, Wisconsin, on noon, April 17, 1945, after an extraordinary wartime experience.[44]

The success of the Los Banos Raid was tempered by a horrific aftermath for the Filipino people who lived around the Los Banos Camp. The Japanese assumed they had assisted the Americans with the raid, and the Japanese exacted a terrible revenge. About 1,500 Filipinos were massacred with bullets, bayonets,  and by being burned alive after being tied up in their homes.[45]

In 1945, Leonard  Nichols started working for Ohio Medical, a medical supplies company. He remained with them for 37 years, retiring in 1982. He was married two times and had a son and a daughter. Leonard D. Nichols, who was part of one of the great stories of World War II, died on June 6, 1999, in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, at the age of 84.[46]

Leonard Nichols

(The Capital Times, 1999 June 8, page 21)

In other stories this week:

  • War correspondent Ernie Pyle, whose columns started appearing in the La Crosse Tribune on February 7, is killed on Okinawa by a Japanese machine-gun bullet in the head. (Columns that he had already written will continue in the La Crosse Tribune for several weeks.)
  • Questions and answers about coupons for canning sugar.
  • Victory Gardens are being promoted with the coming of spring.
  • Marjorie Amann has donated her 10th pint of blood to the Red Cross.
  • A child in England sends a poignant thank you note to the Junior Red Cross council at Logan High School.


See more HERE

Jeff Rand
Adult Services Librarian
La Crosse Public Library

Sources & Notes:

[1] "Nichols, Leonard D.," The Capital Times, Madison, Wisconsin, 1999 June 8, page 21.

[2] The National Archives in St. Louis, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; Draft Registration Cards for Wisconsin, 10/16/1940-03/31/1947; Record Group: Records of the Selective Service System, 147; Box: 514.

[3] "Hardships Of Three Years In Prison Camp In Philippines Told By Nichols On Return Home," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 April 22, page 12. The P-40 Warhawk was the primary Army Air Corps fighter plane at the beginning of World War II. Before the United States entered the war, Claire Chennault's American Volunteer Group pilots, the famous "Flying Tigers," used it successfully against the Japanese in China. In a one-on-one dogfight with a Japanese Zero, however, the Warhawk could be outmaneuvered. P-40 fighter planes were used in the early years of the war in both the European and Pacific Theaters, but by the last few years of the war, they were largely superseded by better Allied aircraft.

[4] "A Real Christmas Present--Letter From Prisoner Son," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1943 December 12, page 1.

[5] Lt. Gen. Edward M. Flanagan Jr. USA (Ret.), The Los Banos Raid: The 11th Airborne Jumps at Dawn (Novato, California: Presidio Press, 1986), 21. Flanagan was an officer with the 11th Airborne fighting on Luzon, but he was not part of the rescue mission (page 9).

[6] Donald Miller, The Story of World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), 102.

[7] La Crosse Tribune, 1943 December 12.

[8]  La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[9] Miller, 104-105.

[10] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[11] La Crosse Tribune, 1943 December 12.

[12] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[13] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[14] La Crosse Tribune, 1943 December 12. The article notes that Lonnie Hines had lived in La Crosse, but "is believed to have moved from here to Green Bay, Wis."

[15] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[16] Flanagan 28.

[17] Flanagan, 237-262.

[18] Flanagan, 26.

[19]  Flanagan, 15.

[20] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[21] Flanagan, 25.

[22]  La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[23] Flanagan, 26.

[24] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[25] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[26] Flanagan, 29-30.

[27] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[28] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[29] "Family Receives Two Cards From Prisoner Of Japanese," La Crosse Tribune, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1945 January 28, page 9.

[30] Frazier Hunt, The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur (New York: The New American Library, 1964), 309.

[31] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22. This newspaper article states that the guards left the camp on December 6, but the invasion of Lingayen Gulf was on January 6, 1945. The latter date fits the timeline presented by Nichols. For more on the Lingayen Gulf invasion, see: James M. Scott, "Terror & Triumph at Lingayen Gulf," U.S. Naval Institute, 2018 October,

[32] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[33] Flanagan, 30.

[34] Frazier Hunt, The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur (New York: The New American Library, 1964), 335-336.

[35] Hunt, 336.

[36] Hunt, 336.

[37] Hunt, 336.

[38] Bruce Henderson, Rescue at Los Banos: The Most Daring Prison Camp Raid of World War II (New YorK: William Morrow, 2015),

[39] Hunt, 336.

[40] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[41] Hunt, 336. Sources differ on the American casualties during the mission. Hunt states that it was two dead and one wounded, with one internee slightly wounded. Flanagan (page 11) states that there was not a single fatality in the raiding force, but the Soule Task Force suffered four American soldiers killed (page 11). Miller (page 434) shows two American soldiers killed and two wounded.

[42] Flanagan, 13.

[43] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[44] La Crosse Tribune, 1945 April 22.

[45] Flanagan, 205-213.

[46] The Capital Times, 1999 June 8.


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